Constructive Dismissal Ireland

Constructive Dismissal Ireland

Constructive Dismissal in Ireland can be a confusing and complex topic for both employees and employers. This comprehensive guide will explore the legalities and employee rights surrounding Constructive Dismissal in Ireland. We’ll explore the process, provide valuable tips, and answer some of this topic’s most frequently asked questions. 

Constructive Dismissal Ireland: The Basics

What is Constructive Dismissal?

Constructive Dismissal is a term used to describe a situation where an employee resigns from their job due to their employer’s behaviour. In essence, the employee feels forced to leave their position because the employer has breached the terms of their contract or created a hostile work environment.

Legal Requirements

In Ireland, Constructive Dismissal falls under the Unfair Dismissals Acts 1977-2015. To bring a claim for Constructive Dismissal, an employee must:

  1. Have at least one year’s continuous service with the employer.
  2. Have exhausted all internal grievance procedures before resigning.
  3. Demonstrate that the employer’s conduct was so unreasonable that resignation was the only option.

Recognising Constructive Dismissal

Signs of Constructive Dismissal

It’s vital to recognise the signs of Constructive Dismissal, as they can vary from subtle to overt. Some common examples include:

  1. A significant reduction in pay or hours without prior agreement.
  2. Being unfairly demoted or passed over for promotions.
  3. Harassment, bullying, or discrimination.
  4. Unreasonable changes to the terms of your contract.
  5. Unjust disciplinary actions or false accusations.

Gathering Evidence

Gathering evidence to support your claim is crucial if you believe you’re experiencing Constructive Dismissal. This could include:

  1. Documenting incidents of harassment or bullying.
  2. Keeping a record of any changes to your contract or terms of employment.
  3. Retaining copies of relevant emails, letters, or text messages.
  4. Obtaining witness statements from colleagues.

Navigating Constructive Dismissal Claims

Seeking Legal Advice

Before taking any action, seeking legal advice from a solicitor specialising in employment law is essential. They can help you determine whether you have a valid claim for Constructive Dismissal and advise on the best course of action.

The Workplace Relations Commission (WRC)

If you decide to pursue a Constructive Dismissal claim, you must submit a complaint to the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC) within six months of your resignation. The WRC will then investigate your claim and may offer mediation or adjudication to resolve the dispute.


If your claim for Constructive Dismissal is successful, you may be awarded compensation. This can be up to two years’ salary, depending on the severity of your case and the impact on your career.

Difficulty Proving Constructive Dismissal

Constructive dismissal is a complex and challenging area of ​​Irish employment law. This occurs when an employee is forced to leave due to an employer’s conduct or behaviour, and the work environment becomes unbearable. Proving a constructive dismissal can be difficult, as the employee must prove that the employer’s actions were so unfair that they were effectively forced to leave. 

Legal Criteria for Constructive Dismissal

To establish a claim for constructive dismissal, an employee must prove two key elements:

a) The employer’s conduct was so unreasonable that it amounted to a significant breach of the employment contract, making it impossible for the employee to continue in their role. 

b) The employee had no alternative but to resign due to the employer’s conduct.

Proving both of these factors can be difficult, especially since the burden of proof is on the employee. Furthermore, Irish courts and the Work Relations Commission (WRC) usually set high standards for de facto dismissals. 

Difficulty in Proving Unreasonable Conduct

One of the main challenges in proving constructive dismissal is establishing that the employer’s conduct was unreasonable to the extent that it forced the employee to resign. 

Examples of unreasonable conduct may include harassment, bullying, demotion without justification, or a significant reduction in pay. However, it is essential to demonstrate that the behaviour was persistent and severe, as isolated incidents may not be sufficient to establish a claim for constructive dismissal.

Difficulty in Demonstrating No Alternative but to Resign

It can be difficult for employees to prove that their employer’s actions forced them to leave. Employees are expected to exhaust all available internal grievance procedures and attempt to resolve any issues with their employers before leaving. Failure to do so could weaken their claim and lead to a finding that the employee did not meet the standards required for actual termination. 

Gathering Evidence

Proving constructive dismissal often relies heavily on the evidence presented. This can be difficult, as employees may need help to gather sufficient evidence to support their claims. Employees must keep detailed records of incidents, communications, and attempts to resolve the situation with their employer, as this evidence can significantly strengthen their case.

Legal Assistance and Representation

Due to the complexity of termination requests, employees should seek legal advice and representation. This can be expensive, and employees should weigh the associated financial and emotional costs against the potential benefits of filing a claim. However, having a legal representative can significantly improve employees’ chances of success and ensure they know their rights and responsibilities.  

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between Constructive Dismissal and Unfair Dismissal?

Unfair Dismissal refers to situations where an employer terminates an employee’s contract without a valid reason or proper procedure. In contrast, Constructive Dismissal occurs when an employee resigns due to the employer’s unreasonable behaviour.

Can I claim Constructive Dismissal if I’m on a fixed-term contract?

Yes, employees on fixed-term contracts are also protected by the Unfair Dismissals Acts 1977-2015 and can bring a claim for Constructive Dismissal if the necessary criteria are met.

How long does the Constructive Dismissal claim process take?

The process can vary in length depending on the complexity of your case and the workload of the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC). Resolving a claim can take anywhere from a few months to over a year.

Can I find a new job while pursuing a Constructive Dismissal claim?

Yes. There is no legal obligation to remain unemployed while pursuing a Constructive Dismissal claim. Finding a new job can help mitigate the financial impact of your resignation and may even be considered when calculating compensation.

What if my employer offers me a settlement before I submit a claim to the WRC?

If your employer offers a settlement before you submit a claim, it’s essential to consult with your solicitor before accepting or rejecting the offer. They can help you assess the fair settlement and advise on any potential risks of proceeding with a claim.

Can I bring a claim for Constructive Dismissal if I’m self-employed?

Unfortunately, self-employed individuals are not covered by the Unfair Dismissals Act 1977-2015 and cannot claim Constructive Dismissal. However, they may have other legal avenues to explore, such as breach of contract claims.

Preventing Constructive Dismissal in the Workplace

Employer Responsibilities

Employers have a duty of care to their employees and should take steps to prevent Constructive Dismissal from occurring. This includes:

  1. Ensuring that all employees are treated fairly and with respect.
  2. Addressing complaints of harassment, bullying, or discrimination promptly and thoroughly.
  3. Regularly reviewing employment contracts and company policies to ensure compliance with employment law.
  4. Providing a clear and accessible grievance procedure for employees to raise concerns.

Employee Rights

Employees should know their rights and what steps to take if they believe they are experiencing Constructive Dismissal. This includes:

  1. Keeping a record of any incidents or changes to their employment terms.
  2. Seeking legal advice if they believe they have a valid claim.
  3. Following internal grievance procedures before resigning.
  4. Submitting a claim to the WRC within the required timeframe.

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