Gross Misconduct in Ireland

Gross Misconduct in Ireland: An Overview

Gross Misconduct in Ireland: An Overview

Gross misconduct is a term used to describe severe breaches of an employee’s contract, which can result in the immediate termination of their employment. This usually involves actions or behaviours that are so severe that they undermine the trust and confidence between the employee and employer, making it impossible to continue the working relationship.

The Legal Framework

Unfair Dismissals Acts

The Unfair Dismissals Acts 1977-2015 set out the rules and procedures surrounding the termination of employment in Ireland. They establish the grounds for an employee being fairly dismissed and provide a framework for dealing with unfair dismissal claims.

The Employment Equality Acts

The Employment Equality Acts 1998-2015 aim to promote equality in the workplace by prohibiting discrimination on nine grounds, including gender, age, and race. They also prohibit victimisation and harassment, which can be relevant in cases involving gross misconduct.

The Workplace Relations Commission

The Workplace Relations Commission (WRC) is an independent statutory body adjudicating employment disputes in Ireland. The WRC hears claims relating to unfair dismissals, discrimination, and other employment-related matters, including those involving gross misconduct.

Identifying Gross Misconduct

Examples of Gross Misconduct

Gross misconduct can take many forms, including theft, fraud, physical violence, gross negligence, or serious health and safety regulations breaches. Other examples may include serious insubordination, harassment, or bringing the company into disrepute.

The Importance of a Clear Company Policy

Employers must have a comprehensive company policy outlining acts and behaviours that constitute serious misconduct. This policy must be communicated to all employees and form part of the employment contract. A clear approach ensures that employees are aware of the consequences of their actions and helps reduce the risk of disputes. 

The Disciplinary Process


Before taking any disciplinary action, employers must conduct a thorough and impartial investigation to establish the facts. This may involve interviewing witnesses, gathering evidence, and allowing employees to respond to the allegations.

Disciplinary Hearing 

If sufficient evidence supports an allegation of gross misconduct, a disciplinary hearing should be scheduled after the investigation. During the hearing, workers are allowed to express their views and should be accompanied by a colleague or union representative. Employees must be reasonably notified and provided with all relevant information, including the investigation results. 


If the employee is found guilty of gross misconduct and dismissed, they should be allowed to appeal the decision. A different manager or panel should hear the appeal, and the employee should be given the opportunity to present any new evidence or arguments.

Fair Procedures and Natural Justice

Principles of Natural Justice

Natural justice is a set of legal principles to ensure fair and just decision-making processes. In the context of gross misconduct, the principles of natural justice require that the employee is given:

  1. The right to know the allegations against them and access any evidence.
  2. The opportunity to respond to the allegations and present their side of the story.
  3. An impartial and unbiased decision-maker.

Ensuring Fair Procedures

To comply with the principles of natural justice and reduce the risk of unfair dismissal claims, employers should:

  1. Follow their own disciplinary procedures and adhere to any relevant codes of practice.
  2. Ensure that the investigation and disciplinary processes are transparent and well-documented.
  3. Provide employees with the necessary support and representation throughout the process.

Consequences of Gross Misconduct


In cases of proven gross misconduct, dismissal is often the most appropriate sanction. However, employers should consider mitigating factors, such as the employee’s length of service or previous disciplinary record, before making a final decision.

Repercussions for Employers

Failing to follow fair procedures when dealing with gross misconduct can result in costly unfair dismissal claims and damage to the employer’s reputation. Employers should seek legal advice to minimise these risks and ensure their disciplinary processes align with best practices.


What is gross misconduct?

Gross misconduct refers to serious breaches of an employee’s contract that can result in the immediate termination of their employment. Examples include theft, fraud, physical violence, and gross negligence.

How is gross misconduct dealt with in Ireland?

In Ireland, cases of gross misconduct are dealt with through the disciplinary process, which includes an investigation, a disciplinary hearing, and the right to appeal. Employers must follow fair procedures and adhere to the principles of natural justice.

What is the role of the Workplace Relations Commission in cases of gross misconduct?

The Workplace Relations Commission (WRC) is responsible for adjudicating employment disputes in Ireland, including claims relating to unfair dismissals, discrimination, and other employment-related matters involving gross misconduct.

Can an employee be dismissed for gross misconduct without any prior warnings?

If gross misconduct is proven, dismissal can be considered a fair and appropriate sanction without prior warning. However, employers must follow fair procedures and consider mitigating factors.  

What are the potential consequences for employers who fail to follow fair procedures in cases of gross misconduct?

Employers who fail to follow fair procedures when dealing with gross misconduct may face costly unfair dismissal claims and damage to their reputation. Employers need to seek legal advice and ensure that their disciplinary processes are.

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